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The penetration of water in buildings
In order for water to penetrate a wall, all three of the following conditions must be true at the same time and location:. Rain, striking a wall at an angle, may have enough horizontal momentum to drive it through an opening see Figure 2a. The water will penetrate the wall if the opening is continuous and properly oriented. The solution in Figure 2b, shows how a labyrinth shaped opening interrupts the flow of water. Other solutions include covering the gap, or orienting the opening downward similar to a louver or baffle 4.
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BSD-013: Rain Control in Buildings
Avoiding Water Penetration in Windows - Facilities Management Insights
But Secure? As vital parts of the exterior enclosure of buildings, windows must resist weather conditions while helping to maintain a comfortable interior space. They must withstand wind, rain, projectiles and exterior temperature extremes while allowing transmission of light, providing ventilation, accommodating building movements, and forming a relatively lightweight cladding system. Problems associated with any one of these areas can compromise overall building performance. As with most materials, windows deteriorate with age, and some repair and maintenance is necessary.
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Damp is the most common and damaging cause of deterioration affecting old buildings and rain penetration accounts for much of this. Basic preventative measures are often neglected, and problems compounded by misdiagnosis and unsuitable modern treatments. In the context of buildings, rain penetration refers to the ingress rainwater above ground at various points in the external envelope of the construction, that is through roofs, walls, chimneys and openings such as windows and doors.
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