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Encyclopedia heterosexism homophobia
Heterosexism and homophobia are two related forms of oppression that can exist alongside or interact with race and racism. Like racism, sexism, classism, caste prejudice, xenophobia, ageism, and other oppressions, heterosexism and homo-phobia share a common root: namely, the exercise of social domination based on a negative evaluation of social difference. Heterosexism and homophobia uphold racism in three key ways: 1 by exacerbating the negativity directed at people who are already subject to racism for example, gay black people ; 2 by strengthening the existing social tendency to create hierarchies based on difference for example, tacitly ranking black heterosexuals above black LGBTQQI people, or privileging white gay men above black gay men ; and 3 by providing additional avenues of discrimination or violence for already vulnerable populations and thus confounding the source of discrimination or violence such as the routine imprisonment or frequent assault of homeless black transsexuals. Both heterosexism and homophobia can pertain to prejudice, discrimination, or violence against people on the basis of their gender presentation and its conformity to social norms in addition to prejudice, discrimination, or violence against LGBTQQI people and related systems of power. Thus, heterosexism and homophobia encompass virtually all forms of oppression that relate to physical sex, sexuality, sexual behavior, sexual orientation, sexual preference, affectional preference, sexual identity, gender identity, gender role, and gender expression, particularly when any of these fall outside what society deems normal or traditional. As such, heterosexism and homophobia often intersect with sexism in addition to race and racism.
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Definitions: Sexual Prejudice, Homophobia, and Heterosexism
Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender LGBT. It can be expressed as antipathy, contempt, prejudice, aversion, or hatred, may be based on irrational fear, and is sometimes related to religious beliefs. Homophobia is observable in critical and hostile behavior such as discrimination and violence on the basis of sexual orientations that are non-heterosexual. Recognized types of homophobia include institutionalized homophobia, e. Heterosexism is a system of attitudes, bias, and discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships. It can include the presumption that other people are heterosexual or that opposite-sex attractions and relationships are the only norm and therefore superior.
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Homophobia and/or Heterosexism – what’s the difference
Definitions: Homophobia, Heterosexism, and Sexual Prejudice. People with homosexual or bisexual orientations have long been stigmatized. With the rise of the gay political movement in the late s, however, homosexuality's condemnation as immoral, criminal, and sick came under increasing scrutiny. When the American Psychiatric Association dropped homosexuality as a psychiatric diagnosis in , the question of why some heterosexuals harbor strongly negative attitudes toward homosexuals began to receive serious scientific consideration. George Weinberg from and
Another less common usage describes heterosexism as an attitude in which the separation of sex, anatomy, gender, and gender roles into two discrete categories of male and female is assumed to be natural and required for coherent personal identity and social stability, and is influential in analyzing gendered social roles and identities Butler and issues of transsexualism and transgendered identity. In this first and predominant use, however, heterosexism is intended to parallel the concepts of sexism and racism and points toward characteristic prejudice and discrimination against sexual minorities, mainly by heterosexuals, but also by self-disapproving homosexuals and bisexuals who have internalized a heterosexist attitude. The ways in which people who evince homosexual desire and behavior are discriminated against include legal inequity military service prohibition, gay marriage and adoption prohibitions, sodomy laws, career restrictions , social treatment housing discrimination, job discrimination, public denouncements , and cultural treatment community invisibility, moral condemnation, stereotyping, greater risk of physical and verbal assault, pressure to stay "closeted," religious condemnation. While these inequities are examples of discrimination, and in some cases obvious mistreatment, discrimination is not in and of itself unjust. Just discrimination occurs when some property of a person is contextually morally relevant to the decision to treat them differently e.